Recently, I gave a presentation and a workshop to a large group of International MBA students at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts. Three second-year MBA students assisted me. Two of them were from China.
Each had a story of “code-switching” of accents and grammar when they were doing their internships. They noted that when they spoke Mandarin with another student from China before going to a meeting where they spoke English, they found that their American colleagues less understood their English.
After listening to a meeting recording, they understood. They were “code-switching”: In effect, using some Mandarin sound system, rhythm and grammar rules when they were speaking English.
The confused listener did not understand and stopped listening to the speaker.
Does this happen to you?
A Sports Analogy
All of us watch or play an athletic sport, correct? And in each one of these sports, the players use the muscles in their legs, arms and hands in similar yet also different moves, timing and strength, dependent upon the desired target movement. Those muscles are the same muscles for each sport, yet moved differently.
As one moves the muscles the same way consistently, the muscles develop adaptation and facilitation to produce the similar sequence with out conscious thought. This is called procedural memory.
Coaches highly discourage playing different sports during a season so that the athlete does not “confuse” the muscle -procedural memory. Confusing the muscle memory makes them less effective players on the field.
The same holds true for speaking. Sound systems are practiced repeatedly within our mother tongue or with peers who sound as we do. Yet when we change to a different language the “accent – procedural memory” of our first language over-rides and code – switching ensues. Now the listener is confused. The accent that the listener is accustomed to is the one that they grew up with. When we “code-switch” or use sounds systems/accent of our 1st language with a 2nd language, the listener cannot understand the sounds, rhythm or words to understand the message.
Our listeners try, yet have difficulty understanding and stop listening. We lose our listener. And maybe the sale or a promotion………………
Knowing the Different “CODES”
Sound System or Codes
Sound systems in speaking are produced by muscles in the mouth and throat using with specific movements of the lips, tongue, voice and breath to generate the target sound or movements in coordination with following movements. The timing of the each of these muscles and muscle groups yields changes in sounds, voicing and voicing timing, pitch tones, air-flow, linking, place of the articulators, resonance and rhythm. Then there are accepted subtle body language behaviors that also contribute to communication.
Talking is another “sport” where we move the same muscles, approximately 72 muscles, and muscle groups around for the same desired results – Winning the game of “Effective communication” in the language we are using or ”playing”.
As said before, languages of the world share some sounds, yet not all. In the following articles, you’ll see which sounds North American English (NAE) does not share with other languages.
Although there are many, other differences that we will also discuss include:
- Clusters or consonant blends,
- Word endings
- Sound linking between words
- Stress patterns and tones
NEXT TIME: The strategies for the the sound system and accent “code” of North American English (NAE)